A Narrative Review on Means to Promote Oxygenation and Angiogenesis in Oral Wound Healing

A Narrative Review on Means to Promote Oxygenation and Angiogenesis in Oral Wound Healing

By: Wei Cheong Ngeow (1) , Chuey Chuan Tan (1) , Yet Ching Goh (1), Tatiana Miranda Deliberador (2) and Chia Wei Cheah (1)

(1) Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
(2) Latin American Institute of Dental Research and Education—ILAPEO, Curitiba 80710-150, Brazil

Abstract: Oral mucosa serves as the primary barrier against pathogen invasions, mechanical stresses, and physical trauma. Although it is generally composed of keratinocytes and held in place by desmosomes, it shows variation in tissue elasticity and surface keratinization at different sites of the oral cavity. Wound healing undergoes four stages of tissue change sequences, namely haemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodelling. The wound healing of oral hard tissue and soft tissue is largely dependent on the inflammatory response and vascular response, which are the targets of much research. This narrative review reappraises the current literature on the use of light, sound, mechanical, biological, and chemical means to enhance oxygen delivery to wounds. The current literature includes the use of hyperbaric oxygen and topical oxygen therapy, ultrasounds, lasers, platelet-rich plasma (PRP)/platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), and various chemical agents such as hyaluronic acid, astaxanthin, and Centella asiatica to promote angiogenesis in oral wound healing during the proliferation process. The arrival of a proprietary oral gel (blue®m) that is reported to improve oxygenation is highlighted.

Conclusion: To summarize, oxygen is an essential component for the maintenance of healthy tissues and for all the processes involved in wound healing, such as the oxidative killing of bacteria, collagen formation, epithelial cell migration, and the formation of new blood vessels. A product based on the principle of enhancing topical oxygen delivery to wounds is recently available in the market: blue®m. This product looks promising, owing to its ease of use and positive influence on tissue healing through the improvement of oxygenation without jeopardising the microbiome stability.

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